Societies are stratified because inequality fulfills an important need of all social systems. Societies are complex systems of interrelated and interdependent parts, and each part of a society significantly influences the others. The inequality of rewards corresponds to what Davis and Moore call functional importance of the position. Davis and Moore argue like this: Society must distribute its members among the various positions in society. Just because stratification is universal does not mean it is a vital aspect or system need of society. The distribution of positions cannot be understood merely by achievement but achievement itself is conditioned by ascription of status.
Rather it draws a high income because it is functionally important and the available personnel is for one reason or another scarce. People have to be motivated to fill certain positions and perform their duties. Why are some positions in society higher than others? There is in stratification systems artificial limits to the development of whatever potential skills there are in society. Opportunities for achievement are not distributed equally.
Talented and trained individuals are scarce because acquisition of training and skills requires people to be sufficiently motivated to pursue them. Overall, the assumption of functionalism is that all social structures contribute to the maintenance of the system and the existence of braverman deskilling thesis given structure is explained braverman deskilling thesis means of its consequences functions which must, by definition be beneficial to the maintenance of stable order.
In general those positions convey the best reward, and have the highest rank which a have the greatest importance for the society and b require the greatest training or talent. For example, wealth, education, professional associations, etc. Societies are stratified because inequality fulfills an important need of all social systems. Davis and Braverman deskilling thesis argue like this: Why are some positions in society higher than others?
The tendency of society is toward stability, harmony, or equilibrium, in other words toward balance. Opportunities for achievement are not distributed equally. People have to be motivated to fill certain positions and perform their duties. braverman deskilling thesis
To remedy this problem, Durkheim advocated using public schooling to sift and winnow children according to their native abilities, educationally prepare them according to their potential–what later became known as tracking–and see that they ended up in jobs that paid accordingly.
Inept progeny of rich tycoons took over companies while intelligent children of workers went uneducated. Some rewards are not functionally determined at all, but rather must braverman deskilling thesis understood within the context of wealth ownership and institution of inheritance.
Main principles of structural functionalism: Davis and Moore state: Each part of a society exists because it braverman deskilling thesis a vital function to perform in maintaining the existence or stability of society as a whole; the existence of any part of a society is therefore explained when its function for the whole is identified.
The most important positions are rewarded the most–the least important are rewarded the least. Summary of the Davis-Moore Thesis: The universality of stratification does not mean it is necessarily beneficial or inevitable. The Nature of Social Braverman deskilling thesis There is in stratification systems artificial limits to the development of whatever potential skills there are in society.
Tumin states see Levine, p. Societies are complex systems of interrelated braverman deskilling thesis interdependent parts, and each part of a society significantly influences the others. The inequality of rewards corresponds to what Davis and Braverman deskilling thesis call functional importance of the position.
Society is seen as a self-regulating system and all of the constituent elements of a society must contribute to maintaining this state of harmony. So, inequality is universal. This is accomplished through the unequal distribution of rewards.
With particular respect to the issue of social stratification or social inequality, the functionalist view argues that social inequality is necessary because it fulfills vital system needs. Critics of the Davis-Moore viewpoint argued that it did not make much sense in non-competitive societies–for example feudalism, where all positions are distributed not by merit but by birth.
We must also consider the problem of deskilling and the control of workers braverman deskilling thesis Braverman –the detailed division of labor.
Class itself can be though of as implying a set braverman deskilling thesis life chances and obstacles to social mobility. Hence, every society, no matter how simple or complex, must differentiate persons in terms of both prestige and esteem, and must therefore possess a certain amount of institutionalized inequality.
Davis and Moore claimed that their theory was applicable to all forms of society. Social positions have varying degrees of functional importance.
The Functionalist View of Stratification:
The distribution of positions cannot be understood merely by achievement but achievement itself is conditioned by ascription of status. It must solve the problem of motivation at two levels: Scarcity of talent is not an adequate explanation of stratification.
High income, power, prestige braverman deskilling thesis a particular position are due to functional importance or scarcity of trained personnel. Rather it draws a high income because it is braverman deskilling thesis important braverman deskilling thesis the available personnel is for one reason or another scarce.
They assume it is beneficial then try to explain how it must be beneficial. Just because stratification is universal does not mean it is a vital aspect or system need of society. Filling the positions within a social structure is a basic need of any society.
Andmore importantly what about those aspects of a class society that do not operate like merit systems? Modern societies allocated their collective labor forces inefficiently, wasting talented but poor people in humble positions and suffering from the inept sons of the privileged in powerful positions.
The answer they come up with braverman deskilling thesis this: Stratification is not positively functionally braverman deskilling thesis a society–it is dysfunctional.
The Functionalist View of Stratification: Why do the higher positions carry more status and rewards? Criticism of the Davis-Moore Thesis: There must be rewards to provide inducements and those rewards must be distributed unequally to assure that braverman deskilling thesis positions get filled.